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Juristat, Statistics Canada
Stats are all 2005/6, unless stated otherwise. Updated Aug 2008.
Facts and Stats from 2004/5
Facts and Stats from 2003/4
Facts and Stats from 2001/2
- (Canada-wide) 131 per 100,000 adult population.
- The incarceration rate increased from 129 per 100,000 adult population in 2004/5 to 131 per 100,000 in 2005/6.
- Just over 232,800 adults were admitted to some form of custody in 2005/2006 (a 4% increase from the previous year)
- This increase was driven by a 6% climb in the number of admissions to remand in
provincial/territorial facilities, and a 4% increase in admissions to federal custody. The number of admissions to provincial/territorial sentenced custody remained stable.
- Since 1996/1997, admissions to remand have grown steadily (+22%) while admissions to provincial/territorial sentenced custody have fallen (-28%)
- An average of 153 000 individuals were under the supervision of Correctional Service Agencies
in Canada, a slight increase from 2004/2005.
- There were approximately 33 440 adults prisoners in custody. These totals
include both federal and provincial prisoners.
- The 2007 national crime rate reached its lowest point in 30 years. Canadian police services reported a 7% decline in crime, the third consecutive annual decrease.
- The violent crime rate fell by 3%, marking its lowest point since 1989.
Following increases in most serious violent crimes over the past two years,
the 2007 rates of homicide, attempted murder, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, assault with a weapon, forcible confinement and abduction declined or remained stable.
- The property crime rate dropped by 8% and reached its lowest point since 1969.
Break and enters were at their lowest level in 40 years, dropping by 9% in 2007. Likewise, motor vehicle thefts declined by 9%.
- The youth crime rate dropped by 2% in 2007, following a 3% increase in 2006.
Violent crimes committed by youth remained stable, while declines were seen in most non-violent offences
- In 2005/6, 182 prisoners died while under the supervision of the criminal justice system.
- In 2005/2006, there were 192 correctional facilities across Canada.
- 76 were under federal jurisdiction. 18 of these were
community correctional institutions (516 spaces) and the rest of the 58 are federal institutions/prisons (14,131 spaces).
- 116 facilities (23,637 spaces) were under
provincial/territorial jurisdiction (only 16 of these prisons are classified as minimum security).
- Since 2001/2002, total reported capacity of
the provincial/territorial custodial correctional system has increased
Correctional services expenditures totalled almost $3 billion in 2005/6, up 2% from the previous year.
- Custodial services (prisons) accounted for the largest proportion (71%) of the expenditures,
followed by community supervision services (14%),
headquarters and central services (14%), and National Parole Board and provincial parole boards (2%).
This figure does not include policing or court costs which bring the total expenditures up to more than $10 billion
for the year.
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal prisoner (2004/5): $259.05 per prisoner/per day
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal female prisoner (2004/5): $150,000-$250,000 per prisoner/per year
- Cost of incarcerating a Federal male prisoner (2004/5): $87,665 per prisoner/per year
- Cost of incarcerating a provincial prisoner (2004/5): $141.78: per prisoner/per day
- The cost of alternatives such as probation, bail supervision and community supervision
range from $5-$25/day.
- In 1981, the daily wage rate for a federal prisoner was $7.55 and a canteen basket cost $8.49.
- In 2007, the daily wage rate for a federal prisoner is $6.90 and that same canteen basket now costs $61.59.
Includes persons awaiting trial, who have not been convicted of a crime.
- Non-sentenced custody counts (e.g. remand and other temporary detention) represented half of all provincial/territorial
custodial counts, equivalent to the proportion of prisoners
in sentenced custody.
- (2005/6 Stat) Since 1996/1997, admissions to remand have grown steadily (+22%) while admissions to provincial/territorial sentenced custody have fallen (-28%)
- Approximately 9,600 adults (2004-5) were held in remand awaiting trial or sentencing on any given day,
an increase of 5% from 2003/2004.
- On any given day BC had 900 prisoners on remand. (2004-5)
- The use of remand has increased 83% (2004-5), from 5,300 to 9,600 adults, over the last decade (since 1995/96).
People who have been convicted of a crime and are serving time in custody (i.e. in a prison or jail).
- The number of federal prisoners
in sentenced custody on any given day declined over the past decade (since 1995/96) by 13%,
from 14,100 to 12,300.
- The number of prisoners
in provincial/territorial sentenced custody has declined by 31% over the past decade, from 14,200 to 9,800.
- Provincial prisoners (Canada-wide) in non-sentenced custody (remand) out number those
prisoners sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
- 4% of the total canadian adult population - (2006 Census)
- 24% of admissions to provincial/territorial sentenced custody
- 18% of admissions to federal prisons
- 19% of admissions to remand
- 21% of male prisoner population
- 30% of female prisoner population
Manitoba, Aboriginal people accounted for 71% of sentenced
admissions in 2005/2006 (and make up 16% of the outside population), up from 58% in 1996/1997.
- In Saskatchewan -- Aboriginal adults make up 79% of the total prisoner population (15% of outside population)
(for all provinces, see page 22 of this StatsCan Report)
- In the provincial system, 30% of female prisoners are Aboriginal (2004-5)
- In the federal system, 25% of female prisoners are Aboriginal. (2005-6 stat) This has increased steadily since 1997, when Aborignal women made up 15% of federal female prisoners.
- In Saskatchewan, Aboriginal women account for 87% of all female admissions
- In Manitoba and the Yukon, Aboriginal women account for 83% of all female admissions
- In Alberta, Aboriginal women account for 54% of all female admissions
- In British Columbia, Aboriginal women account for 29% of all female admissions
These high rates of imprisonment remain despite changes made by parliament to the sentencing
provisions of the criminal code. These changes to the criminal
code were designed to address the issue of overrepresentation of First
Nations within the sentenced prison population. s.718.2(e) of the criminal
code provides that "all available sanctions other than imprisonment that are reasonable in the circumstances
should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to
the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders."
- 6% of the youth in Canada - (2006 Census).
- There were approximately 7,500 Aboriginal youth admitted to either custody or probation in 2005/2006
- 23% of youth held on remand
- 31% of admissions to sentenced custody
- 22% of probation admissions
Female Aboriginal Youth
Male Aboriginal Youth
- 35% of female youth admitted to sentenced custody
- 27% of female youth admitted to remand
- 31% of male youth admitted to sentenced custody
- 22% of male youth admitted to remand
- Provincial: 6% of people in provincial/territorial sentenced custody.
- Federal: 4% of people in federal sentenced custody.
- Remand: 6% of people remanded into custody to await court appearances were female.
- 16% of people on probation, parole or serving a conditional sentence in 2004/2005 were female.
- There were about 39,000 admissions to youth custody and community
correctional services (2004/2005, not all provinces reported).
- In 2005/2006, the third year following the implementation of the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA), there were 3,724 youth
admitted to sentenced custody, 14% fewer than the previous year and 18% fewer than in 2003/2004.
Declines occurred in both secure and open custody admissions.
- Youth make up 8% of Canada’s total population.
Youth represented 21% of all persons charged by police in 1999 and 21% of these
charges were against females.
- In 2004/5, about 450 young people on average were on deferred custody and
supervision - Deferred custody and supervision allows a young person to
serve a custody sentence in the community under a number of strict
conditions and is comparable to conditional sentence for adults. Any breach
of conditions may result in the young person being sent to custody.
- In 2005/6, there were 13,681 youth admitted to remand (meaning custody while awaiting trial or sentencing) which was an increase of 2% from the previous year.
- The incarceration rate in 2004-5 was 83 per 100 000 youth population, 2003-2004 was 82 per 100 000.
There were 12,550 admissions to probation in 2005/2006, marking a 2% decline from the previous year
and a 24% decrease since the implementation of the YCJA in 2003/2004. Probation continued to account for 37% of all admissions to youth correctional services programs.
- Since 1993 there has been a 60% increase in the number of prisoners over 50
years of age and an 87% increase in the number of prisoners over the age of 65.
- At any given time (2004/5) there were approximately 400 federal prisoners aged 20 or
younger. 28% of these prisoners are aboriginal.